## Unlocking the Secrets of the Quadratic Equation: Demystifying 4x^2 – 5x – 12 = 0

### Introduction:

The realm of mathematics is vast and intriguing, with equations serving as the building blocks of many mathematical concepts. One such equation that holds significance in algebra and beyond is the quadratic equation. In this comprehensive guide, we delve into the intricacies of the equation 4x^2 – 5x – 12 = 0, exploring its roots, solutions, and the various methods used to decipher its mysteries.

## Understanding the Quadratic Equation:

At its core, the quadratic **equation** is a second-degree polynomial equation of the form ax^2 + bx + c = 0, where ‘a,’ ‘b,’ and ‘c’ are coefficients, and ‘x’ represents the variable. Our focus lies on the specific equation 4x^2 – 5x – 12 = 0, and we’ll embark on a journey to unravel its secrets step by step.

### Breaking Down the Terms:

To begin our exploration, let’s break down the terms of the equation:

– Coefficient ‘a’ is 4

– Coefficient ‘b’ is -5

– Coefficient ‘c’ is -12

The equation 4x^2 – 5x – 12 = 0 has three terms, each contributing to the overall behavior of the quadratic expression. Understanding these terms is crucial for finding the roots and solutions.

## Methods for Solving Quadratic Equations:

Several methods exist for solving quadratic equations, each with its unique approach. We’ll explore the two primary methods: factoring and the quadratic formula.

**1. Factoring:**

Factoring involves expressing the quadratic equation as a product of two binomials. For 4x^2 – 5x – 12 = 0, we seek two numbers whose product is ac (product of ‘a’ and ‘c’) and whose sum is b.

In this case, ac is (4)(-12) = -48, and b is -5. We need to find two numbers whose product is -48 and whose sum is -5. After careful consideration, the numbers -8 and 6 fit the criteria.

Therefore, the equation can be factored as (4x + 6)(x – 8) = 0.

Setting each factor equal to zero gives us two possible solutions:

a) 4x + 6 = 0, which leads to x = -3/2

b) x – 8 = 0, which leads to x = 8

**2. Quadratic Formula:**

The quadratic formula is a universal method for finding the roots of any quadratic equation. For the equation 4x^2 – 5x – 12 = 0, the quadratic formula is given by:

\[ x = \frac{-b \pm \sqrt{b^2 – 4ac}}{2a} \]

Substituting the coefficients of our equation, we get:

\[ x = \frac{5 \pm \sqrt{(-5)^2 – 4(4)(-12)}}{2(4)} \]

Simplifying further:

\[ x = \frac{5 \pm \sqrt{25 + 192}}{8} \]

\[ x = \frac{5 \pm \sqrt{217}}{8} \]

Thus, the quadratic formula provides two roots:

a) \( x = \frac{5 + \sqrt{217}}{8} \)

b) \( x = \frac{5 – \sqrt{217}}{8} \)

## Applications in Science and Engineering:

Quadratic equations find extensive applications in various fields, including science and engineering. From modeling physical phenomena to solving real-world problems, the quadratic equation plays a pivotal role.

**1. Bacteria Growth:**

In the realm of biology, quadratic equations are employed to model population growth, such as the proliferation of bacteria. By understanding the growth rate and initial population, scientists can use quadratic equations to predict future populations and optimize conditions for experiments.

**2. Physics and the Parabolic Path:**

Quadratic equations are fundamental in physics, particularly in describing the trajectory of objects under the influence of gravity. When an object is launched into the air, its path follows a parabolic curve, and quadratic equations help calculate the height, range, and time of flight.

**3. Engineering Fields:**

Engineers frequently encounter quadratic equations when dealing with structural analysis, circuit design, and optimization problems. The ability to solve and manipulate quadratic equations is essential for designing efficient and reliable systems.

## Understanding the Discriminant:

The discriminant (\(\Delta\)) is a crucial component when analyzing the nature of the roots of a quadratic equation. In the quadratic formula \(x = \frac{-b \pm \sqrt{\Delta}}{2a}\), the discriminant is given by \(\Delta = b^2 – 4ac\).

**1. Discriminant and Nature of Roots:**

– If \(\Delta > 0\), the equation has two distinct real roots.

– If \(\Delta = 0\), the equation has two identical real roots.

– If \(\Delta < 0\), the equation has two complex (conjugate) roots.

For our equation 4x^2 – 5x – 12 = 0, the discriminant is:

\[ \Delta = (-5)^2 – 4(4)(-12) = 25 + 192 = 217 \]

As \(\Delta > 0\), the equation has two distinct real roots, reinforcing the results obtained through factoring and the quadratic formula.

**Real-World Problem Solving:**

Now that we’ve explored the mathematical intricacies of the quadratic equation 4x^2 – 5x – 12 = 0, let’s apply our understanding to solve a real-world problem.

Imagine a scenario where a ball is thrown into the air with an initial velocity, and its height above the ground is modeled by the quadratic equation \(h(t) = -4.9t^2 + 10t + 2\), where ‘t’ represents time in seconds and ‘h’ represents height in meters.

To find when the ball hits the ground (height \(h = 0\)), we set the equation equal to zero:

\[ -4.9t^2 + 10t + 2 = 0 \]

Applying the quadratic formula with \(a = -4.9\), \(b = 10\), and \(c = 2\), we can determine the time at which the ball hits the ground.

## Conclusion:

In this extensive guide, we’ve delved into the intricacies of the quadratic equation **4x^2 – 5x – 12 = 0**, exploring its roots, solutions, and applications. From factoring to using the quadratic formula, each method provides a unique perspective on solving quadratic equations. The real-world applications in science and engineering highlight the significance of quadratic equations in understanding and modeling various phenomena.

As we navigate the world of mathematics, the quadratic equation stands as a testament to the beauty and versatility of mathematical concepts. Whether unraveling the mysteries of bacteria growth, predicting the trajectory of a projectile, or solving engineering problems, the quadratic equation remains a fundamental tool in the toolkit of mathematicians and scientists alike.